What makes up the spine?
The lower spine consists of five bones, called the lumbar
vertebrae. The vertebrae support the body and protect the
spinal core and nerves. Between each vertebra is a disk
filled with a jelly-like material. The disks act as shock
absorbers for the vertebrae. Along the spine are many nerves.
Injury to these nerves can cause pain.
What can cause low back injuries?
Many things can cause low back injuries - muscle strain or
spasm, sprains of ligaments (which attach bone to
bone), joint problems or a "slipped disk." The most common
cause of low back pain is using your back muscles in
activities you're not used to, like lifting heavy furniture,
playing basketball or doing yard work.
A slipped disk happens when the disk between the bones bulges
and presses on nerves. This is often caused by twisting while
lifting. But many people won't know what caused their slipped
Back pain can also follow normal activities such as bending
over the sink to brush your teeth. Back pain may be made worse
by stress, long periods of inactivity or being in an unusual
position for a long time.
Call your doctor if
Pain goes down your leg below your knee.
Your leg, foot, groin or rectal area feels numb.
have fever, nausea or vomiting, stomach-ache, weakness, or
lose control over going to the bathroom.
Your pain was caused by an injury.
Your pain is so intense you can't move around.
Your pain doesn't seem to be getting better after two
to three weeks.
What should I do when I've hurt my lower back?
The best position for relief when your back hurts is to lie on
your back on the floor with pillows under your knees, with
your hips and knees bent and your feet on a chair, or just
with your hips and knees bent. This takes the pressure and
weight off your back.
If you're resting a hurt back, you may need a few days of this
sort of rest. Resting longer than this can cause your muscles
to weaken, which can slow down your recovery. Even if it
hurts, walk around for a few minutes every few hours.
If you're resting a tired back, stay in one of these positions
for five to 25 minutes at a time.
Heating pads can help to relax painful muscle spasms. Use heat
for 20 to 30 minutes at a time. Ice packs and massages may
also give relief. Medicines that reduce pain or swelling
include ASA (some examples are Aspirin, Entrophen), ibuprofen
(some examples are Advil, Medipren, Motrin IB) and
acetaminophen (some examples are Panadol, Tylenol).
Is there relief for ongoing back problems?
Treatment of ongoing back problems must be directed at the
cause. This may mean losing weight (because being overweight
can make back pain worse), getting your muscles in better
shape, and improving your posture when you're standing,
sitting and sleeping. Most people feel much better within a
few weeks. Serious problems are rare.
Tips for preventing back strain
Don't lift by bending over. Lift an object by bending your
hips and knees and then squatting to pick up the object.
Keep your back straight and hold the object close to your
body. Avoid twisting your body while lifting.
Push rather than pull when you must move heavy objects.
If you must sit at your desk or at the wheel of a car or
truck for long hours, break up the time with stops to
Think about your posture.
Wear flat shoes or shoes with low heels 2.5 cm (1 inch) or
What's the best position for standing?
If you must stand for long periods, rest one foot on a low
stool to relieve pressure on you lower back. Every five to 15
minutes, switch the foot you're resting on the stool. Move
around as much as you can. Maintain good posture: keep your
ears, shoulders and hips in a straight line, with your head up
and your stomach pulled in.
What's the best way to sit?
Sitting puts more pressure on your back than any other
position, even more than standing. To reduce this pressure,
sit in chairs with straight backs or low-back support. Keep
your knees a little higher than your hips. Adjust the seat or
use a low stool to prop your feet on.
Turn by moving your whole body rather than by twisting at your
waist. Use a swivel chair to help reduce twisting.
When driving, sit straight and move the seat forward. This
helps you not lean forward to reach the controls. You may want
to put a small pillow or rolled towel behind your lower back
if you must drive or sit a long time.
What's the best position for sleeping?
The best way to sleep to reduce the pressure on your back is
on your side with your knees bent. You may put a pillow under
your head to support your neck. You may also put a pillow
between your knees.
If you sleep on your back, put pillows under your knees and a
small pillow under you lower back. Don't sleep on your stomach
unless you put a pillow under your hips.
Use a firm mattress. If your mattress is too soft, use a board
of 1.3 cm (1/2 inch) plywood under the mattress to add
What exercises can I do to help my back?
Some specific exercises can help your back. One is to gently
stretch your back muscles. Lie on your back with your knees
bent and slowly raise your left knee to your chest. Press your
lower back against the floor. Hold for five seconds. Relax and
repeat the exercise with your right knee. Do 10 of these
exercises for each leg, switching legs.
While some exercises are specific for your back, it's also
important to stay active in general. Bicycling or walking is
good overall exercises to improve your fitness.